Oceanography – From the History of the Sea to the Latest Discoveries

The ocean, which covers more than 70% of the earth’s surface, is a huge and fascinating realm. It’s a site of breathtaking beauty and immense power, teeming with life that has captivated humanity for ages. The ocean has mysteries and miracles that have yet to be found, from the smallest microorganisms to the greatest whales. Oceanography is the science that helps us comprehend this intriguing world by uncovering the ocean’s mysteries and hidden riches. This blog will discuss everything from the current events in oceanography to its depths and will explore the science of oceanography and uncover the treasures that lay under the waves. Let’s get started.

History of Oceanography

Oceanography has a long history because people have always been attracted by the water and its wonders. The ancient Greeks were among the first to explore the ocean, with intellectuals such as Aristotle and Pythagoras writing on tides and currents.

Oceanography science did not emerge as a distinct scientific subject until the nineteenth century, with the introduction of dedicated research expeditions and the development of new instruments and methodologies. Pioneers such as Matthew Maury and Charles Darwin worked to further our knowledge of the ocean, while organizations such as the 1870s Challenger Mission served to create the groundwork for contemporary oceanography. It is still evolving and expanding today, with researchers utilizing cutting-edge technology to explore the deep sea and discover the mysteries of the world’s seas.

Different Areas of Oceanography: Branches of Study

Oceanography is an interdisciplinary concept of science where different fields such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, and geology intersect. But oceanography has emerged as a completely different field because of its depths and mysteries which require thorough research and exploration yet in 2023. In general, the experts discuss oceanography in four separate types or branches. These branches are physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, marine geology, and marine ecology. 

Physical Oceanography

Have you ever thought about why ocean currents run the way they do? So why are certain regions of the water warmer or saltier than others? Physical oceanographers seek answers to these problems. These scientists are uncovering the mysteries of the world’s biggest and most complicated ecosystem by examining the physical processes that create the ocean. Physical oceanography is the branch of oceanography that investigates the mechanisms behind the causes of oceanic phenomena including tides, waves, and currents. These dynamics, which are vital in influencing the distribution of heat and nutrients across the ocean, are controlled by elements such as temperature, salinity, and the Earth’s rotation. Physical oceanography is a fascinating topic that helps us understand the underlying factors that control our planet’s climate and weather.

Chemical Oceanography

The ocean is a large and complicated chemical laboratory, packed with a breathtaking variety of chemicals and elements that interact and evolve at all times. Chemical oceanographers are the scientists who research these processes by measuring the quantities of nutrients, contaminants, and other chemical compounds in the ocean using cutting-edge techniques. Chemical oceanography is a key discipline that is helping us understand the implications of human activities on the ocean and the world as a whole, from carbon cycles to ocean acidification to dangerous algae blooms.

Biological Oceanography

Biological oceanography as the name suggests is the interaction between various species with each other and their environments. It involves life, reproduction and collection, and all other aspects of life within the marine ecosystem.  As we all know that the ocean is the home of thousands of species So how can these species live and survive in this constantly changing environment?  Biological oceanography is here to answer just that.  Scientists uncover the mysteries of the ocean and define the links between the species to investigate marine life under the water. Biological oceanography is an interesting topic that aims to discover everything that covers everything related to life underwater.

Geological Oceanography

Geology as the name suggests is related to structure and composition, so geological oceanography is the study of the ocean’s history physical composition, and all those processes that impact life underwater. Scientists are exploring the process of how the ocean was formed by studying the past details. Geological oceanography is a vast field of study that helps humans to appreciate the Earth’s dynamic structure, from underwater to the top of the mountains. Therefore, the next time you look at the sea, remember that there is an entire world underneath that has its own wonders.

Impact of Climate on Oceanography

Our changing climate has adverse effects on the ocean and life underwater. In 2019, over 57% of the global surface of water recorded extreme heat due to climate change. The change in underwater temperatures has chemical effects within the water that result in an impact on the ocean pH, heat content, surface temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and many other alarming indications. Due to the result of these reactions, many species face a hard time surviving in the waters, especially near the shore. Due to this reason, different patterns in life are seen by scientists. Some of them are mentioned below.

Warm Waters

Warm waters, as the name indicates, are waters that are warmer than typical. This may happen due to a multitude of factors, including seasonal shifts, ocean currents, and global warming. As sea temperatures rise, they may have serious consequences for marine life. Many fish and other marine animals, for example, have temperature ranges in which they survive. When the temperature of the water surpasses certain limits, it may induce stress, disease, and even death in these species. Warmer seas may also cause changes in ocean currents, which can have a knock-on impact on the whole ecosystem.

Specie Migration

According to the researchers, the ocean has begun to move at the fastest pace over the last 30 years, increasing the kinetic energy and surface pressure. According to the oceanography news, all of these factors impact many underwater species such as Sharks to migrate to the Northern side in the summer in search of cooler waters. But as the condition is getting worsened day by day they have to travel further to the North to find a cool enough habitat on Long Island. This trend is far larger than any natural variability which suggests that the water temperatures will continue to increase in a long term. 


Hypoxia occurs when there is not enough oxygen in the water for the organisms in it to survive. This may happen if there is an abundance of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, which promotes the development of algae and other creatures. There is a decrease in oxygen levels in the water due to the death and decay of these organisms. Many marine organisms depend on oxygen, therefore this might have devastating effects on them. Another consequence of hypoxia is the creation of lifeless “dead zones” in the ocean.

How to Protect Marine Life & Why it is Important?

Sea life is an essential component of our planet’s ecology, supplying people and other animals with food, oxygen, and other vital resources. However, our oceans are in growing danger from pollution, overfishing, and climate change. To maintain the health of our planet and assure a sustainable future, we must take efforts to conserve marine life and oceanography. There are several things we can do to help save marine life.

  • Reduce The Use of Plastic: 

We should use fewer things made of plastic, which is hazardous to marine life since they may easily be mistaken for food or get entangled in the material.

  • Support Sustainable Fishing:

Also, we can show our support for sustainable fishing techniques by reducing the negative effects that fishing has on marine ecosystems.

  • Reduce Carbon Footprint:

Moreover, we may take steps to lessen the impact of our carbon emissions by switching to renewable forms of energy and decreasing our dependence on fossil fuels, both of which are known to have a role in the acidity and warming of ocean waters.

Why Protecting Marine Life is Important?

The preservation of marine life is essential not just to the health of our oceans, but also to our own personal health and happiness. For instance, the ocean is responsible for the production of more than half of the oxygen that humans breathe and also plays an important part in the process of controlling the temperature of the earth. In addition, marine life supplies essential sources of both food and medicine, and many species have the potential to lead to new discoveries and improvements in their respective fields.

Some Major Underwater Discoveries

The ocean is a vast realm and has many secrets which are yet to be discovered. Here are some of the famous underwater discoveries that made headlines on the internet and the world.

Apollo 11 Debris

Everyone knows about Apollo 11, the famous American spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. Made in 1969, the Apollo Lunar Module 11 engine was led by Neil Armstrong on the flight to the moon. And after a stay of 195 hours, Apollo 11 went down after successfully completing the national goal set by government officials. Later in 2013, the Amazon founder discovered something unusual on the deep sea floor. It was the debris from Apollo 11. At first, the 40-year-old debris was considered to be lost forever, but it was found in 2011 and is still one of the fascinating discoveries. 


Heracleion was one of the most significant discoveries beneath the surface of the Earth. Most people also refer to it as Thonis, Heracleion was the oldest city of Egypt near Alexandria whose legendary origins date back to the 12th Century BC. In 2000, the lost city was discovered under the ocean. It is believed that the city fell to demise when it started to sink in the second or third century. It is one of the greatest discoveries that are still marked among the achievements of oceanography. 


You’ve certainly heard of it before; Titanic was a magnificent British passenger ship that met with a terrible end on her first trip in 1912. It was a tragic event that captivated the attention of people throughout the globe for more than a century. The sinking of the Titanic, which is considered to be one of the worst maritime catastrophes in recorded history, has not only left an indelible impact on our collective psyche but has also had enormous ramifications for the subject of oceanography.

The loss of the Titanic brought to light the need for increased knowledge and comprehension of the risks involved in traveling through seas that are cold. It also emphasizes the need for oceanography. As a result of the accident, advancements in oceanography and maritime technology, such as the creation of more advanced sonar and navigation systems, were sparked, and the significance of providing accurate weather forecasts was brought to the forefront of public attention.

Final Thoughts

To summarize, oceanography is a huge and intriguing science that studies the world’s seas and their many intricate and linked systems. Oceanography has played a significant part in expanding our knowledge of the ocean and its influence on our world, from the early explorations of the ocean to the superior technology of modern-day research boats and submersibles.

With so many threats to our oceans today, such as pollution, overfishing, and climate change, it is more crucial than ever to continue researching and protecting this critical resource. We can help assure a sustainable future for ourselves and the varied and dynamic marine ecosystems that call the ocean home by acting to rescue marine life and decrease our effect on the ocean.

We are certain to make many more discoveries as we continue to study the ocean, from old wreckage like the Titanic to new and fascinating creatures that have yet to be found. Also, we can unveil the mysteries of the ocean and assure a brighter future for ourselves and all species on Earth by continuing to support and invest in oceanography and earth science.

Previous Post
Next Post